Biomass direct combustion power generation technology refers to the use of thermal energy from biomass combustion to convert into steam for power generation. In principle, it is no different from coal-fired power generation. The principle is to convert the chemical energy stored in biomass into internal energy of high-temperature and high-pressure steam through combustion in a specific steam boiler, then convert it into kinetic energy of the rotor through a steam turbine, and convert it into clean and efficient electrical energy through a generator. Direct combustion power generation refers to the direct combustion of biomass in a boiler to produce steam and drive a steam turbine and generator to generate electricity. The key technologies for biomass direct combustion power generation include biomass raw material pretreatment, boiler anti-corrosion, boiler raw material applicability and fuel efficiency, steam turbine efficiency, and other technologies.
Biomass gasification power generation technology is the process of converting biomass into combustible gas and reusing combustible gas to generate electricity through gas powered power generation equipment. The principle is to convert the chemical energy stored in biomass into combustible gas through combustion in a specific gasifier, and then convert it into clean and efficient electricity through a gas turbine power generation system. Biomass gasification power generation technology refers to the conversion of biomass into gas fuel in a gasifier, which is purified and directly burned in a gas engine for power generation or directly fed into a fuel cell for power generation. One of the key technologies for gasification power generation is gas purification. The gasified gas contains certain impurities, including ash, coke, and tar, which need to be removed through a purification system to ensure the normal operation of the power generation equipment.
Biogas power generation technology is a biogas utilization technology that has emerged with the continuous development of biogas comprehensive utilization. It uses biogas in engines and is equipped with comprehensive power generation devices to generate electricity and heat, which is an important way to effectively utilize biogas. Biogas power generation is a biogas utilization technology that has emerged with the continuous development of biogas comprehensive utilization technology. Its main principle is to use a large amount of organic waste in industry, agriculture, or urban life to be anaerobic fermented and produce biogas to drive power generation units. The equipment used for biogas power generation is mainly internal combustion engines, which are generally modified from diesel or natural gas units. Biogas is often produced in sewage treatment plants, landfills, distilleries, food processing plants, and livestock farms.
Biogas is a combustible gas produced by the decomposition and transformation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions by various microorganisms. It belongs to the category of biomass energy and is mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane content is about 50-70%, and the carbon dioxide content is 30-40% (volume ratio). There are also small amounts of hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and other gases, accounting for about 10-20% of the total content. Methane burns with fire in the air, converting into carbon dioxide and water, and releasing energy. Biogas fermentation, also known as anaerobic digestion, anaerobic fermentation or methane fermentation, refers to the complex biological chemical process in which organic matter forms methane, carbon dioxide and other mixed gases (biogas) under certain water, temperature and anaerobic conditions through the catabolism of various microorganisms with various types, large quantities and different functions.
Biomass mixed combustion power generation refers to the application of biomass raw materials in coal-fired power plants, using both biomass and coal for power generation. The principle is to burn biomass and coal together in a boiler and convert them into internal energy of high-temperature and high-pressure steam, which is then converted into kinetic energy of the rotor through a steam turbine, and converted into electrical energy through a generator. The mixed combustion technology of biomass and coal can be divided into two forms: direct mixed combustion and gasification utilization. Biomass can also be mixed with coal as a fuel for power generation, known as biomass mixed combustion power generation technology. There are two main methods of mixed combustion. One method is to directly mix biomass with coal and put it into combustion. This method requires high requirements for fuel treatment and combustion equipment, and not all coal-fired power plants can adopt it; One type is the mixed combustion of gas and coal generated from biomass gasification. In this mixed combustion system, the generated steam is sent together to the steam turbine generator set.
(1) Adhere to the principle of "electricity determined by heat, cogeneration". Due to the large industrial and heating load in the city, based on the characteristics of the heat load and from the perspective of ensuring investment efficiency, the installation plan should be determined based on meeting the recent heat load demand, combined with the planning of the city's long-term heat load scale and power load demand, to achieve the purpose of cogeneration and centralized heating.
(2) In order to ensure the safety and reliability of heating, it is necessary to try to make the capacity and number of units more reasonable to avoid excessive impact on heating when a larger unit is shut down.
(3) To improve the efficiency of thermal power plants, higher initial parameters should be selected for the main equipment.
Prospects for the Future of Biomass Power Generation
With the continuous intensification of competition in the biomass power generation industry, mergers and acquisitions and capital operations among large biomass power generation enterprises are becoming increasingly frequent. Excellent domestic biomass power generation enterprises are increasingly paying attention to research on the industry market, especially in-depth research on the development environment of enterprises and changes in customer demand trends. Because of this, a large number of excellent domestic biomass power generation enterprises have rapidly risen and gradually become leaders in the biomass power generation industry!
At the same time, developing biomass power generation and implementing coal substitution can significantly reduce carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions, generating huge environmental benefits. Compared with traditional fossil fuels, biomass energy is a clean fuel, and carbon dioxide emissions after combustion belong to the carbon cycle of nature, which does not form pollution. According to calculations, operating one 25000 kW biomass power generation unit can reduce carbon dioxide emissions by approximately 100000 t/a compared to similar thermal power units. According to the "2013 2017 China Biomass Power Generation Industry Deep Research and Investment Strategy Planning Analysis Report" by Qianfeng Network, biomass power generation will occupy a dominant position in renewable energy by 2025. In the future, utilizing biomass renewable energy for power generation has become one of the important ways to solve energy shortages.