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沼气发电机组常见故障排查技巧

来源:https://www.huannengpower.cn/ 文章作者:济柴环能 发布时间:2024-06-06

通常沼气发电机组会出现以下问题:

Usually, biogas generators encounter the following problems:

1.启动困难 出现该故障,首先应检查混合器是否有沼气进入沼气发电机,沼气供给系统是否有故障,检查混合气是否符合质和量的要求。然后检查所有缸线是否跳火,逐步检查点火系统、12V电源系统等是否工作正常,具体步骤如下:

1. If the fault occurs due to difficulty in starting, the first step is to check whether there is biogas entering the biogas generator in the mixer, whether there is a malfunction in the biogas supply system, and whether the mixed gas meets the quality and quantity requirements. Then check if all cylinder wires are sparking, and gradually check if the ignition system, 12V power supply system, etc. are working properly. The specific steps are as follows:

1)检查沼气装置或电路是否有故障,ECU电源打开后,减压器电磁阀应有“喀哒”响声。2)检查12V继电器是否良好。

1) Check if there is a malfunction in the biogas device or circuit. After the ECU power is turned on, the pressure reducer solenoid valve should make a clicking sound. 2) Check if the 12V relay is in good condition.

3)检查沼气管路是否畅通,阀门是否开启。

3) Check if the biogas pipeline is unobstructed and if the valve is open.

4)检查钢瓶是否有气。

4) Check if there is gas in the steel cylinder.

5)检查混合气浓度是否过浓或过稀,调整混合器上的怠速浓度调整螺钉,顺时针混合气加浓,反时针混合气变稀,或加或取一张混合器膜片铜垫片。加铜垫片混合气变稀,减铜垫片混合气变浓。

5) Check if the mixture concentration is too rich or too thin, adjust the idle concentration adjustment screw on the mixer, increase the mixture concentration clockwise, decrease the mixture concentration counterclockwise, or add or remove a mixer diaphragm copper gasket. Dilute the mixture with copper gaskets, and thicken the mixture with copper gaskets.

6)检查高压线跳火性能,检查高压线是否漏电。

6) Check the ignition performance of the high-voltage line and check if there is any leakage in the high-voltage line.

7)检查线束插接件是否可靠。

7) Check if the wiring harness connectors are reliable.

8)检查曲轴转角信号传感器是否良好。

8) Check if the crankshaft angle signal sensor is in good condition.

9)检查整车电源及电压变换器输出电压是否符合要求。

9) Check whether the output voltage of the vehicle power supply and voltage converter meets the requirements.

10)检查蓄电瓶电压是否过低、连接是否正常。

10) Check if the voltage of the battery is too low and if the connection is normal.

11)检查火花塞电极间隙是否正常,有无积炭。

11) Check if the spark plug electrode gap is normal and if there is any carbon buildup.

12)检查空气滤清器是否良好,进气管路是否畅通。

12) Check if the air filter is in good condition and if the intake pipeline is unobstructed.

13)检查起动机是否工作正常。

13) Check if the starter is working properly.

20230310035340115.jpg

14)检查ECU是否工作正常。

14) Check if the ECU is working properly.

2.沼气发电机动力下降

2. The power of the biogas generator decreases

首先要按沼气发电机的检查方法排查一下沼气发电机的工作情况,断缸试验,看是否个别缸不工作或工作不好,每缸作比较;有无气缸漏气现象;气门间隙是否正常。在确定上述部位没有故障,判定故障可能发生在沼气装置上。故障排除方法:

Firstly, the working condition of the biogas generator should be checked according to the inspection method of the biogas generator, and a cylinder cut-off test should be conducted to see if individual cylinders are not working or working properly. Each cylinder should be compared; Whether there is any cylinder leakage phenomenon; Is the valve clearance normal. After confirming that there is no fault in the above parts, it is determined that the fault may have occurred on the biogas plant. Troubleshooting method:

1)沼气动力阀间隙太小,沼气流量不够,混合气过稀。调整动力阀,国Ⅲ系列沼气发电机的动力阀装在减压器出气口,动力阀有刻度,R(-)方向为减小,L(+)方向为增大。

1) The gap between the biogas power valve is too small, the biogas flow rate is insufficient, and the mixture is too thin. Adjust the power valve. The power valve of the National III series biogas generator is installed at the outlet of the pressure reducer. The power valve has a scale, with the R (-) direction indicating a decrease and the L (+) direction indicating an increase.

2)检查沼气过滤器有无堵塞。

2) Check for blockages in the biogas filter.

3)检查压力平衡管是否漏气或破损。

3) Check if the pressure balance pipe is leaking or damaged.

4)增压中冷系统是否有漏气,检查排气管垫、增压器接口、中冷器、混合器、进气管及各连接硅胶管,增压器有无损害。

4) Check if there is any air leakage in the turbocharged intercooling system, inspect the exhaust pipe gasket, turbocharger interface, intercooler, mixer, intake pipe, and all connecting silicone pipes, and check if the turbocharger is damaged.

5)排气管道或三元催化器堵塞,致排气阻力增大。

5) Blockages in exhaust pipes or three-way catalytic converters result in increased exhaust resistance.

6)检查空气滤清器是否良好,进气管路是否畅通。

6) Check if the air filter is in good condition and if the intake pipeline is unobstructed.

7)检查沼气步进电机及减压器出气口到混合器之间的管路。

7) Check the pipeline between the biogas stepper motor and the pressure reducer outlet to the mixer.

8)混合器皮膜破损,不能形成合理的空燃比,更换皮膜。

8) The mixer film is damaged and cannot form a reasonable air-fuel ratio. Replace the film.

9)中低压减压阀二级阀片行程过小。

9) The second stage valve disc stroke of the medium and low pressure reducing valve is too small.

10)减压器电磁阀阀芯、阀孔是否破损,进气量不够,更换电磁阀。

10) Check if the valve core and valve hole of the pressure reducer solenoid valve are damaged, and if the air intake is insufficient, replace the solenoid valve.

11)检查低减压器的膜片、弹簧、杆杆有无损害。

11) Check for damage to the diaphragm, spring, and rod of the low pressure reducer.

3.耗气量高

3. High gas consumption

沼气发电机经过一段时间使用后,出现耗气量过高的现象,这时要全面检查沼气发电机状况。

After using the biogas generator for a period of time, if there is a phenomenon of high gas consumption, it is necessary to comprehensively inspect the condition of the biogas generator.

1)检查沼气发电机水温是否低于80℃,使减压器加热不良,或减压器循环水管被堵,造成减压器有结冰,混合气偏浓。

1) Check if the water temperature of the biogas generator is below 80 ℃, which may cause poor heating of the pressure reducer or blockage of the circulating water pipe of the pressure reducer, resulting in ice formation in the pressure reducer and a concentrated mixture of gas.

2)高低压沼气管线、混合器与节气门连接处、进气管、沼气装置及钢瓶是否漏气。

2) Check for leaks in high and low pressure biogas pipelines, mixer and throttle valve connections, intake pipes, biogas devices, and steel cylinders.

3)空气滤清器是否干净,进气管路是否畅通。

3) Check if the air filter is clean and if the intake pipe is unobstructed.

4)混合器流量是否调整不当,使混合气过浓。在保证正常启动的情况下,再在混合器膜片上加0.1mm厚铜垫或适当关小功率阀。

4) Is the flow rate of the mixer adjusted improperly, causing the mixture to become too rich. Under the condition of ensuring normal startup, add a 0.1mm thick copper pad on the diaphragm of the mixer or reduce the power valve appropriately.

5)中冷增压沼气发电机减压器出口压力高,最高可达80Kpa,使用检漏液检查沼气出口到进气管之间各部件是否有漏气,用压缩空气检查。

5) The outlet pressure of the pressure reducer of the intercooled pressurized biogas generator is high, up to 80Kpa. Use leak detection liquid to check whether there is any leakage in the components between the biogas outlet and the intake pipe, and use compressed air to check.

6)低压减压器输出压力是否过高。

6) Is the output pressure of the low-pressure reducer too high.

7)检查蓄电池电压是否过低和点火系统是否有故障。

7) Check if the battery voltage is too low and if there is a malfunction in the ignition system.

8)断缸法检查各缸工作情况。

8) Check the working condition of each cylinder using the cylinder cut-off method.

9)所有沼气发电机动力不足,均会引起耗气量增加。上述检查完成后,若仍没有解决沼气耗气量高的问题,则可能是沼气发电机技术状况下降,需要检查气门间隙,各缸的气缸压力。

9) Insufficient power of all biogas generators will cause an increase in gas consumption. After the above inspection is completed, if the problem of high biogas consumption is still not solved, it may be due to a decline in the technical condition of the biogas generator. It is necessary to check the valve clearance and cylinder pressure of each cylinder.

4.热车不易启动

4. The hot car is not easy to start

有时沼气发电机熄火后,马上启动会出现启动困难,这时要检查一下沼气发电机的工作情况,看配气系统、点火系统是否有故障,然后检查下面几项:

Sometimes, after the biogas generator is turned off, it may encounter difficulties in starting immediately. At this time, it is necessary to check the working condition of the biogas generator, see if there are any faults in the gas distribution system and ignition system, and then check the following items:

1)电磁阀过热,阀芯卡滞或磁力下降。

1) The solenoid valve overheats, the valve core gets stuck or the magnetic force decreases.

2)电控插头是否有接触不良。

2) Is there any poor contact in the electrical control plug.

3)混合器阀芯是否有卡滞现象,使混合气过浓、过稀。

3) Is there any jamming phenomenon in the mixer valve core, causing the mixture to be too rich or too thin.

4)减压器输出压力是否过高,超出正常值。

4) Is the output pressure of the pressure reducer too high, exceeding the normal value.

5)检查受温度影响的部件。

5) Inspect components affected by temperature.

5.电磁阀打不开

5. The solenoid valve cannot be opened

减压器电磁阀打不开的原因可能是以下几点:

The reasons why the solenoid valve of the pressure reducer cannot be opened may be as follows:

1)电源未接通或电磁阀搭铁不好,也可能是电压过低,启动时压降过大,启动时检查电瓶电压,电源变换器输出电压是否有12V。

1) If the power supply is not connected or the electromagnetic valve is poorly grounded, it may also be due to low voltage and excessive voltage drop during startup. Check the battery voltage during startup and whether the output voltage of the power converter is 12V.

2)磁线圈故障,开启功率不足。

2) Magnetic coil malfunction, insufficient opening power.

3)阀芯通气孔被堵。

3) The valve core vent is blocked.

4)ECU无输出控制信号。

4) ECU has no output control signal.

5)阀芯和铁心的配合间隙太小,阀芯不能自由滑动。

5) The clearance between the valve core and the iron core is too small, and the valve core cannot slide freely.

6)阀芯O形圈或橡胶垫损坏。

6) The O-ring or rubber gasket of the valve core is damaged.

6.怠速不稳

6. Unstable idle speed

沼气发电机怠速运转时,转速忽快忽慢极不稳定。在检查点火系统没有故障的情况下,故障可能发生在燃料供给系统、怠速步进电机失控,此时应重点检查沼气装置及电机。

When the biogas generator is idling, the speed fluctuates greatly and is extremely unstable. If there is no malfunction in the ignition system, the malfunction may occur in the fuel supply system and idle stepper motor out of control. At this time, it is important to focus on inspecting the biogas device and motor.

1)进气道是否有漏气现象。

1) Is there any air leakage in the intake duct.

2)混合器空燃比调整是否合适。

2) Is the air fuel ratio adjustment of the mixer appropriate.

3)混合器阀芯有否卡滞现象。

3) Check if the mixer valve core is stuck.

4)混合器膜片是否破损漏气,造成有高速无低速现象。

4) Is the diaphragm of the mixer damaged or leaking air, causing high-speed and low-speed phenomena.

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